How to scientifically fertilize

Mistakes of Farmer Fertilization:

The first fertilizer is much more, on the production of much more knowledge, resulting in increased investment. The second with a rotary tiller before hitting the fertilizer, the implementation of the phenomenon of serious, resulting in fertilizer volatile, a serious waste. The amount of organic fertilizer decreased, the proportion of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer imbalance. Re-application of fertilizer, less or not the phenomenon of agricultural manure is very common, only to do not raise, resulting in many land consolidation serious, drought, fertilizer, water retention capacity decline. Fourth, in the application of chemical fertilizers, the crop is very uneven, the amount of cash crops, food crops with less. Blind fertilization not only causes serious waste of fertilizer, while causing environmental and groundwater pollution. In view of the above unreasonable fertilization phenomenon, in any kind of crop fertilization, according to what kind of crops you plant, to determine what fertilizer fertilizer. And then calculate how much fertilizer, the specific period of what Shi Shi, in what way the best fertilization effect. Our aim is to use the least investment to get the most benefit. Application of fertilizer to determine. Plants for growth and development, the need to absorb nutrients from the soil, including a large number of elements and trace elements. But the decision to plant yield is the soil that the relative content of the smallest effective nutrients. Ignoring the minimum nutrient and supplementing other nutrients does not increase crop yields. The smallest nutrient that is the lowest supply of nutrients that kind of soil, which is the nutrient we want to supply.

Fertilization time selection

There are two critical periods for crop uptake, namely, plant nutrition critical period and plant nutrient maximum efficiency period. Plant nutrition critical period: refers to the process of plant fertility, there is a period of time for a certain amount of nutrient requirements, but very sensitive, need urgent. At this point, such as the lack of such nutrients, the impact of plant fertility is extremely obvious, the resulting loss, even if the future supplement this nutrient is difficult to correct and make up. The critical period of phosphorus is generally in the seedling stage: 10-20 days after emergence of cotton, one week after emergence of maize; nitrogen critical period is slightly backward: wheat is at tillering stage, cotton is in early buds, maize is in spike differentiation period. Plant nutrition maximum efficiency period: a certain period of time the number of plants need the most nutrient, the fastest absorption rate, the role of fertilizer the largest, the highest yield, this time is the maximum efficiency of plant nutrition period. At this time plant growth, the most obvious response to fertilization. The maximum efficiency of nitrogen in maize is at the beginning of heading, and during the period of heading, the wheat is at the time of heading and heading.
The vegetative critical period of the crop phosphorus element appeared in the early stage of crop growth and development, and the phosphorus was slow in the soil and in the crop after the application of the phosphate fertilizer. In order to ensure the demand for phosphorus at the seedling stage, the phosphate fertilizer is best applied to the soil in the form of basal fertilizer to prevent the supply of phosphorus in the crop critical period. Other nutrients should be in the elemental nutrition critical stage of a small amount of topdressing (at this time, if the soil supply is sufficient when the top dressing), the maximum efficiency of the various nutrients should focus on top dressing.

Determination of fertilizer quantity

The most commonly used method of estimating the amount of fertilizer is the nutrient balance estimation method, which is calculated based on crop yield and soil fertility difference. “Balance” is the part of the nutrient supply of soil supply is supplemented by fertilization, the formula is: fertilizer = (crop fertilizer required – soil for fertilizer) / (fertilizer in the effective nutrient content × fertilizer utilization). The total demand for different crops for different nutrients, such as wheat to form 100kg of grain to absorb nitrogen 3kg, phosphorus pentoxide 1.25kg, potassium oxide 2.5kg. Corn to form 100kg of grain to absorb nitrogen 2.57kg, five red phosphorus 0.86kg, potassium oxide 2.14kg. Soil fertilization techniques can now measure nutrient content in soil and calculate fertilization formula based on planned yield. The majority of farmers can directly purchase soil testing formula for fertilizer or according to the formula to choose their own quality fertilizer for the use of quality.

N, P, K fertilizer reasonable application

  • 1, urea. Before farming with a small amount of organic fertilizer mixed, sprinkle, and then plowed into the soil, the depth should be about 10 cm. (Urea, ammonia) in advance 4-5 days, can ditch facilities, facilities, facilities in the depth of 5-10cm, not with the facilities with irrigation, at least wait 2-3 days before The irrigation
  • 2, ammonium nitrogen fertilizer. Ammonium in the wet, high temperature (> 30 ℃) when a large number of decomposition, into ammonia volatilization, resulting in nitrogen loss. Application method: ① combined with arable land will be sprinkled on the ground, immediately turned down. ② top dressing facilities, facilities Crops topdressing, can be in the crop next to the 7-10cm at the ditch, digging, the depth of 7-10cm, immediately after the cover soil.
  • 3, phosphate fertilizer. Soil phosphorus can not meet the needs of crops, must be supplemented by fertilization, application methods: ① dry crops in the seedling stage to absorb phosphorus the fastest, to account for half of the total absorption of total phosphorus, if the seedling phosphorus deficiency, will affect the late Growth, even if the late re-fill, it is difficult to save the loss of phosphorus, so the seedling period can not be phosphorus deficiency. ② fine calcium phosphate in the storage when easy to absorb moisture caking, in the application, to break the screen to facilitate the root absorption. ③ concentrated phosphorus is easy to be soil iron, aluminum, calcium and other fixed and failure. It should be applied to the facilities, so that the phosphorus fixed in the seeds and roots around, you can reduce the soil with the surrounding fixed, but also conducive to root absorption. ④ mixed with organic fertilizer, especially calcium and magnesium phosphate and organic fertilizer mixed with phosphorus can make those difficult to convert phosphorus to crop can use the available phosphorus. ⑤ stratified phosphate fertilizer in the soil mobility is small, where the basic where the fixed? Therefore, in the bottom and shallow should be the application of phosphate fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer applied in the shallow, is conducive to the absorption of seedlings, thus promoting the return of early green, fast tiller. Shallow one-third, two-thirds deep. ⑥ mixed with nitrogen fertilizer crops to absorb a certain proportion of nutrients, if the proportion of imbalance is not good. Single nitrogen fertilizer, root development is not good, easy to lodging, but also vulnerable to pests and diseases, but also to accelerate the excessive disappearance of nitrogen in the soil, causing nitrogen and phosphorus imbalance. And nitrogen and phosphorus with the application, you can balance the nutrients, but also to promote root system under the bar, lay the foundation for high yield.
  • 4, potash. Potassium chloride on cotton and other fiber crops to improve fiber content and quality have a good effect. Chloride has an adverse effect on certain crops such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, peaches, grapes and other crops. Application of the roots in the role of tuber can reduce its starch content. For these avoid chlorine crops, it is best not to use.

The rational application of calcium fertilizer

The transport of calcium in the plant is unidirectional. That is, the roots of plants absorbed calcium, only through the transpiration stream from the xylem to the top of the plant, and can not be transported through the phloem and then down. Leaves grow fast, calcium transport soon. After the bagging, there was no transpiration flow and the late leaves were slow to grow, and the calcium could not be transported to the fruit. So even in the high calcium content of the soil will often calcium deficiency (Apple bitter pox disease), calcium must be in the bag before the make up. Calcium effect is good or bad is the spraying of the site, must be sprayed on the surface of the fruit, other places even if the spray and then large, if not sprayed on the fruit surface, almost no effect. The spraying period should be better in the morning or evening. Ca fertilizer main varieties are: superphosphate, Ca (No3) 2, calcium amino acid.

The compound fertilizer

In a fertilizer, at the same time containing N, P, K three elements or only one of the two elements of fertilizer called compound fertilizer. There are two types: compound fertilizer and mixed compound fertilizer (BB fertilizer) using chemical synthesis or extraction and separation process and made with a fixed nutrient content and ratio of fertilizer, such as (diammonium phosphate, potassium nitrate, phosphoric acid Dihydrogen potassium, nitric acid phosphate, etc.) called chemical fertilizer. Features: nutrient species, high content, small sub-components, good traits, but the nutrient ratio is fixed, it is difficult to meet the technical requirements of fertilization. According to the need to mix two or more fertilizers made of compound fertilizer, referred to as compound fertilizer, also known as mixed with compound fertilizer, mixing should be noted that the following fertilizer can not be mixed together: ① ammonium nitrogen and alkaline Fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium bicarbonate can not be mixed with grass ash, calcium magnesium phosphate. ② superphosphate alkaline fertilizer, such as superphosphate can not be mixed with grass ash, calcium magnesium phosphate. ③ superphosphate can not be mixed with ammonium bicarbonate. ④ urea and potassium chloride with the mix with the facilities. ⑤ In general, a variety of fertilizer and organic fertilizer mixed effect better.

Microbial fertilizer

Microbial fertilizers are biological fertilizers made from one or more beneficial microorganisms, culture media and additives (carriers). Known as bacteria or bacteria, is an indirect pollution-free fertilizer. The types of microbial fertilizers include rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing agents, phosphorus bacteria, potassium bacteria (silicate bacteria), antibacterial fertilizer, compound bacteria and so on.
1, the role of bio-fertilizer
Improve soil nutrient supply. Microbial fertilizers promote the dissolution and release of insoluble nutrients in the soil through various fungi. Currently on the market of microbial fertilizer to phosphorus and potassium solution as the representative. Phosphorus bacteria, on the one hand through the phosphate esterase decomposition of soil organic phosphide; on the other hand through the microbial metabolism, resulting in inorganic and organic acid dissolved inorganic phosphate. Potassium bacteria mainly through the process of potassium bacteria produce acidic substances in the process, to promote the decomposition of potassium minerals, thereby releasing potassium ions. At the same time, due to the metabolic process of bacteria, the release of a large number of inorganic organic acidic substances, and promote the trace elements in the soil silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, molybdenum and other release and chelate to improve the supply of nutrients in the soil. Promote crop growth. The use of microbial fertilizers promotes the production and regulation of stimulants, ie, plant production regulators, to promote crop growth and development. Enhance crop resistance to disease resistance. Some strains of microbial fertilizers have the function of secreting antibiotics, inhibiting or killing fungi and bacteria.
2, the rational role of bio-fertilizer
The effect of microbial fertilizer fertilizer is affected by its own factors such as the number of effective bacteria in the fertilizer, the size of the activity and other factors, but also by other factors such as soil moisture, organic matter, PH value and other ecological factors, so the microbial fertilizer The choice and application should pay attention to rationality. Microbial fertilizer application should pay attention to the following: ① microbial fertilizer must be with the local farming, water management and other relevant agricultural technical measures in close cooperation. ② microbial fertilizer should not be home for a long time, the best with the system with the use, with the use of to buy, should be stored before the application of cool dry place, to avoid heat, moisture and direct sunlight. ③ microbial fertilizers generally can not be applied with chemical fertilizers at the same time. ④ microbial fertilizer application methods are generally seed dressing, soaking, dipping the root, base facilities, topdressing, ditch facilities and facilities, to seed dressing the most simple, economical and effective. Seed dressing method is the first solid fertilizer plus water transferred to the paste, or liquid bacteria plus water diluted, and then mix well with the seeds, a little dry after sowing, and immediately cover soil. Seeds need to be sterilized when the bacteria should be selected harmless disinfectant, while the first disinfection of seeds after the bacteria.